Notes on Zamboanga: from the founding of la Caldera in 1595 to the cholera of 1916

Note on ‘Notes’: Would like to share these simple notes I wrote down while engaged in research on Zamboanga for my Zamboanga historical novels, ‘Samboangan: the Cult of War,” and ‘The Siege of Fort Pillar.’ Took these notes decades ago when the idea came to my mind to write about my hometown Zamboanga. By the way, the research took longer than the writing of the first novel, ‘Samboangan: the Cult of War.’

Notes on Zamboanga: from the founding of la Caldera in 1595 to the cholera of 1916: Part 1 of 3

Naming of Zamboanga
Early Malay settlers called the region” Jambangan,” translated as “Land of Flowers,” since in Indonesian jambangan means flowers [actually a misnomer, since this supposed legend or myth started with the late Mayor CCC, who quick to the draw, saw it as a very good gimmick to promote Zamboanga as the “city of flowers” [story told by Cabo Negro to author]].
The region was called “Samboangan,” meaning “docking point,” from the word “sabuan,” the wooden pole used by Samals and Badjaos in pushing their vintas.
It was in 1593 when the Spaniards made their presence felt with a small Catholic mission at La Caldera, now known as Recodo. Much later on June 21, 1635 …
Source: Zamboanga Hermosa
Founding of Zamboanga post
The Jesuits influenced the occupation of Mindanao. They had accompanied the expedition of Rodriguez de Figueroa in 1595.
The presidio of Zamboanga was founded in 1635, by a force under Don Juan de Chaves. Army consisted of 300 Spaniards and 1,000 Bisayas.
The end of the Peninsula was “swept of Moro inhabitants and their towns destroyed by fire.”
In June, the foundations of the stone fort were laid under direction of Father Vera, S.J. A ditch was built from the river Tumaga, six or seven miles away, to bring water to the fort.
The same year Corcuera became governor of the Philippines; he confirmed the Jesuits “policy of conquest.”
Source: History of the Philippines, pp 170-71: Barrows
Founding of Zamboanga
“When the punitive expedition failed, Governor Juan Cerezo de Salamanca, on the insistent appeals of the Jesuit missionaries, decided to establish a military base in some strategic point in Mindanao.”
“On April 6, 1635, Captain Juan de Chaves, with 1,000 Bisayans and 300 Spaniards, arrived at Zamboanga and wrested it from the Muslims.”
On June 23, a stone fortress [Fort San Jose; presently called Fort Pilar] commenced to be built by order of Chaves. Undertaken by Fr. Melchor de Vera, Jesuit missionary-engineer.
Source: P.I. Political and Cultural …p 310; Zaide
Zamboanga abandoned
Zamboanga and the Moluccas were abandoned in 1662. It wasn’t due to the incessant restlessness of the Moros nor by the plowings of the Dutch — but to a threat of danger from the north.
The notorious Chinese Koxinga, son of the pirate It Coan, after his conquest of Formosa from the Hollanders after months of fighting, threatened the invasion of the Philippines, in the spring of 1662.
All Spanish forces concentrated in Manila, as Moluccas, and the presidios of Zamboanga and Cuyo, which served as a bridle on the Moros of Jolo and Mindanao, were abandoned. With the loss of these southern possessions, Spain’s prestige was gone. Moreover, Koxinga died before he could proceed with his plan of conquest of the Philippines.
Source: History of the Philippines, p 182: Barrows
Description of abandoned Zamboanga: 1673
William Dampier’s observations of Zamboanga after Spaniards abandoned Fort Pilar, thus: “Left Cotabato January 14 [1673] … next day we were almost in Chobongo, a town in the island and 30 leagues from the river of Mindanao. Here it is said to be a good harbor, and a great settlement with plenty of beef and buffaloes. It is reported that the Spaniards were formerly fortified here also, that are two shoals (Sta. Cruz islands) that lie off this place, two or three leagues from the shore. From thence the land is more low and even; there are some hills in the country.
“17th day … landed on the east keys (Tictuan island) in eight fathoms water, clean said and here are plenty of green turtles …
“A little to the westward of the keys, on the island of Mindanao, we saw an abundance of coconut trees; therefore were sent over canoes; thinking to find the inhabitants, but found none, no sign of any; but great racks of wild hogs, and great cattle; and close by the sea there were ruins of an old fort. The walls thereof of good height, built with stone and lime; and by the workmanship seemed to be Spaniards. From this place, the land trends west north west and it is an indifferent height by the sea.
“On the 22nd, we got about the western most point …”
Dampier touched Sakol island on January 17, 1673.
Source: Jambangan, p 56: A de Z 4th year class: 1978-79
Re-founding of Zamboanga
In 1718, Bustamante refounded presidio of Zamboanga. “Not a year had passed, since its abandonment years before, that pirates from Borneo and Mindanao had failed to ravage the Bisayas.”
Jesuits had petitioned for its re-establishment, and in 1712 the King decreed its re-occupation.
Citadel rebuilt by an engineer, Don Juan Sicarra. Besides the usual barracks, etc. There was a cuartel for the Pampangan soldiers.
Sixty-one cannons for defenses.
Source: p 192: Barrows
Zamboanga rebuilt
In 1718, Gov. Manuel de Bustillo re-occupied Zamboanga, which had been abandoned in 1662 [56 years] on account of the threatened invasion of the Philippines by Koxinga.”
Fort rebuilt in 1719 by Engineer Juan Sicarra, mounted with sixty-one cannons and garrisoned by Pampangan soldiers.
Source: P.I. Political … p 313: Zaide
Spanish settlement on Mindanao-Zamboanga
With Claveria’s governorship, came the last phase of Moro piracy.
In spite of numerous expeditions, Spain’s occupation of Mindanao and Sulu archipelago limited to presidio of Zamboanga; she occupied this strategic point since re-establishment of Spanish power in 1763. Strong stone fort proved impregnable to Moro attack.
Distributed for “a distance of some miles over the rich lands at this end of the Zamboanga peninsula was a Christian population, which had grown up largely from the descendants of rescued captives of the Moros. Mixed population of Bisayas, Calamianes, and Luzon, it has “grown to have a somewhat different character from that of any other part of the islands. A corrupt Spanish dialect, known as the `Chabucano,’ has become the common speech, the only instance in the Philippines where the native dialect has been supplanted. This population, loyal and devotedly Catholic, never failed to sustains the defense of this isolated Spanish outpost, and contributed brave volunteers to every expedition against the Moro islands.
Source: p 240: Barrows
Zamboangueños braver
Spanish historian writing as late as 1860, say: “The people of Zamboanga are braver than any of the Filipino (Christian) natives, and the Moros have proven their courage that the name of Zamboanga is heard with awe, so skillful are they with the management of the kris, lance and campilan. From ancient times the inhabitants of Zamboanga have been exempt from tribute.”
Source: p 136: Hurley
District of Caldera Bay untenable to Spaniards
“As late as 1890, the district of Caldera bay, within fifteen miles of Zamboanga, was untenable to the Spaniards. Professor Worcester, visiting that district on a tour devoted to the collection of Zoological specimens, declared that the Moros never wearied of pantomiming how they would cut his throat if he were only a Spaniard. The lawlessness of Caldera, situated within a few miles of the great fortress of Nuestra Senora del Pilar, is indicative of the Spanish helplessness in Mindanao.”
Source: p 145: Hurley
Zamboanga: “a class by itself”
“It is interesting to read in a recent number of the Manila Times that Zamboanga, which seemed so like a picture handed down from Spanish days, has absorbed a good share of American progressiveness and is said to stand in a class by itself among Philippine towns. Water works and a hydro-electric plant are under construction, the water for which is to be brought along the mountainside, a part of the way through tunnels. To dig these, `experienced Igorot tunnel makers from Benguet were imported,’ who are getting along amicably with the Moros.”
Source: The Spell of … pp 349-350: Anderson
Zamboanga “loveliest town”
Loveliest town in the Philippines, situated bay’s edge, no ghastly slum intervened between its pleasant streets and the water. “A wide esplanade led from the town proper to the old Spanish-built fort, moated, walled, and turreted. Through the main street of the village ran a little canal lined on both sides by coconut palms. Beyond the town lay rice fields, and beyond the rice fields rose the forest.
Source: p 209: Potter
Zamboanga – contact to outer world
“ … Furthermore, and perhaps a more important thing in the eyes of the American command, it was the point of all others, barring Manila itself, where the Philippines came in contact with the outer world.”
Source: p 208: Potter
Zamboanga post “beautiful”
Next morning, August 23rd, approached Zamboanga. We landed under triumphal arches … school children sang and threw flowers from “old Spanish gardens” post … “really beautiful,” had much left from old Spanish times … “the green parade had a terraced canal passing through it, and avenues of palm; the officers quarters, smothered in flowering plants and fronting out over the glittering blue sea, were large and airy and finer than any we had seen before. It is considered one of the best posts in the Philippines, and seemed cool and pleasant.”
Source: The Spell of … p 344: Anderson

Subanon Ancestry
p. 83 = Pre-Spanish and pre-historic diggings identify old Subanun residential sites, the city’s “aboriginal man.”
Before the arrival of Mohammedans and Spaniards, the Subanuns held “entire country of Zamboanga, sharing only with the Negritos” — who disappeared from the whole region.
When the Spaniards came to Zamboanga, Zamboanga’s founders (Subanun brothers: Tubunaway, Dulalandan, Sumolilidlid and Idsak) left Zamboanga — except Idsak who resided in Tetuan.
Subanun folklore established these Subanun pre-Spanish sites: Pasonanca, Tetuan, Baliwasan, Dumagsa. Christie adds others: Sta. Maria, Timba between Patalon and Labuan.
p. 84 = Two accidental diggings in the city “established two other sites: one right dead center of the 1973 Rizal Park, in front of city hall and in the heart of downtown Zamboanga, and the other Muslim Campo Islam, four kms. west of the city proper.
Source: Charter Day, “Zamboanga city”: Mandi, P.
Subanuns as nucleus of Zamboangueños
p. 83 = Sociologically and culturally, present Zamboangueños are “rooted in the Subanuns, Samal (Muslim Samals), as well as the elder Christian Filipinos (Cebuano, Ilongo, Pampango) who founded the Fort Pilar establishment in 1635 through the 1700s.
Distinctive group of Filipinos about year 1734.
Christie cites Subanun legend that Subanuns “who remained in Zamboanga when Spaniards came here became the nucleus of the present population of Zamboanga.
Source: Mandi
###
First Period: Zamboanga roots
1596 = The cabildo of Manila assigns Jesuits to Mindanao
1610 = Rajah Bungsu assumed sultanate as Muwallil Wasit Bungsu, and married Nayac, daughter of Sarayan in Pulong Bato.
1634 = Juan Cerezo de Salamanca ordered establishment of fort and garrison in Zamboanga.
1635 = April 6, Capt. Juan de Chavez arrived with 300 Peninsulars and 1,000 Visayan infantry regulars.
1649 = Rajah Bungsu signed treaty of peace with Spain (exemption from tribute and quintas for Samboangan)
1662 = Cogseng took Formosa from Dutch, sent letter to de Lara who ordered total pull-out of spiritual forces of imperial Spain (SFIS) from Samboangan.
1663 = January 7: pullout left Alonso Macombong in command
without artillery; charged to defend the fort “in the King’s name against all enemies,” but refused to against Kudarat.
Curtain of history fell for 56 years. Twenty-four years later William Dampier, British corsair observed upon reaching Zamboanga that the place was abandoned except for marks of hoof prints and ruined fort.
Bereft of priests after Zamboanga was abandoned in 1663, all 6, converts revert to Islam.
Birth of Zamboanga
Because of the unbearable Muslim raids on coastal towns of the Visayas, the Visayan missionaries asked Gov. Cerezo de Salamanca to provide defense against pirates
Defense was to be in Cagang-Cagang (Rio Hondo), Zamboanga, since it would 1) split the two sultanates right in the middle; 2) deny Kudarat the Basilan Straight passage to the North; and 3) take Sibuguey from Kudarat and Basilan from Bungsu.
… outside the palisade and moat facing Basilan, “was the village of the Lutaos and Subanons, the first Zamboangueños of history.
Birth of Zamboanga was on June 23, 1635, when the Fort San Jose’s cornerstone was laid; two months previously Captain Juan de Chavez landed with 300 Spanish regulars and 1,000 Visayan auxiliaries.
First order was to demolish nearby villages and transfer them to New Samboangan. The largest village was Old Samboangan “sitting on the twin-mouth of the river Masinloc.”
By the “fire and sword of the soldiers, or gentle Jesuit persuasion, all had to move to New Samboangan, which in the course of time, simply became Samboangan.”
New Samboangan referred to the fort site.
Zamboanga born by artificial transplantation at the side of the fort.
Location of Old Samboangan: mouth of Masinloc river (Tumaga river)
Old Samboangan was the largest village situated on “the twin-mouth of river Masinloc.” Traders sank their samboangs (where Zamboanga got its name) in the sand and hitched vintas on them before going (sometimes wading) ashore to trade their goods.
River was negotiable from Old Samboangan all the way up to the foot of Mt. Pulong Bato (now Pasonanca), where Timuay Saragan’s village stood. Along the river banks could be seen huts of Subanons.
Fort San Jose: strongest fort then
Forts of Manila and Ternate were made of timber, but Fort San Jose of massive stone and mortar.
Governor General Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, who bivouacked here two years later before attacking Sultan Kudarat) said “it could cause admiration even in Flanders where he had seen action before.” Corcuera himself actually finished the moat by supervising the “digging and bringing in of the water from Tumaga river.”
The “stones must have been cut from the sea bottom,” like those for churches in Bohol,” since there isn’t any quarry “even for miles and miles around.”
Soldiers conscripted as masons; complained: 1) “I feel like dropping this stone on the head of de Vera; 2) I’d rather send two bullets through his head than Kudarat’s; and 3) someone named Cebes died suddenly while singing and dancing the “cus-cus,” in “mockery of the Fathers.” The soldiers, according to Combes wrote:
Mira, pasagero, advierte Look, passerby, ‘tis said
Que por bailar el Cus-cus that for dancing Cus-cus
Sin poder decir Jesus with no time to utter Jesus
Dieron a Cebes la muerte Cebes fell dead.
Father Combes, who was in Ternate, said “neither the Portuguese nor the Spaniards had a fort equal to Samboangan’s.”
Jesuits and Spaniards return to Zamboanga
After fifty-six years Spaniards returned to Zamboanga, in 1719. Fort Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza built over old foundations of Fort San Jose. It was built by Army engineer Juan de Sicarra, under the command of Gen. Gregorio Padilla y Escalante. “There is an error in the marker set on the wall of Fort Pilar,” said former Jesuit Lim. The Jesuits didn’t return in 1668.
First recognized marriage between native girls and Spanish officers
Naval commander Inocencio Atilano to Dominga
Governor Manuel Alvarez to Gregoria, daughter of Dominga and Inocencio Atilano.
Pedro Bad-de as general of the Lutaos
Pedro Bad-de, grandson of Felipe Macombong, was appointed general of the Lutaos. Pedro and his wife Felipa, parents of first Mrs. Atilano.
Ethnic origins
Eighty % Lutaos; 10% Subanons; 5% Chinese and Spanish mestizo; 5% Visayans, Pampangos and Spaniards … “confined within the radius of artillery, took on Spanish characteristics, so that, given the fifty-six years of absence, Montero y Vidal, some 200 years later, would say that they not only `poor Spanish’ but even imbibed Spanish laziness, gregariosness and possessiveness.”
Zamboangueños’ feeling of superiority
Four causes: 1) exempted from tribute and quintas (every fifth (quinta) able-bodied man to serve in case of war; 2) aided by Royal Situado a yearly budgetary allowance from the King’’ coffers; 3) engaged in continuous naval skirmishes with the Muslims, and with superior firepower came off victorious; and 4) held first line of defense against Muslim attacks.
Lutaos and Bungsu’s sons return to New Samboangan
Pedro Piantong and his people from Dapitan came to New Samboangan. Piantong once a Lutao of Samboangan who fled from Kudarat to Dapitan and became a Christian, came back with Father Gutierrez to New Samboangan.
Sons of Bungsu and Nayac came back from Jolo and were baptized, older Felipe Macombong and the younger, Santiago Tongab. Felipe appointed commanding general of the Lutaos and Subanons, while Santiago, colonel of 800 regular militia known as Voluntarios de Zamboanga, who quelled the Sumoroy revolt in 1650.
In 1663, the army and spiritual forces quit Zamboanga.
Zamboanga’s royal connections with Mindanao sultanate
This “connections” begin with “General Felipa,” wife of Pedro Estrada Bad-de, parents of the first Mrs. Atilano, who was honored by the King of Spain with the “name of honor, de Montal.” Because of her father who fought victoriously over mountains and hills for God and King.
Rajah Bungsu (by Nayac), father of Felipe Macombong, father of Alonso Macombong, father of Pedro Estrada Bad-de, father of Dominga Estrada de Montal, mother of Gregoria Alvarez, mother of Manuel Alvarez, jr., father of Alejo Alvarez, father of Vicente Alvarez, father of Ramon Alvarez, etc.
Sultan Khibad Sahriyal was uncle of Gregoria Atilano (1st Mrs. Alvarez)
In the correspondence between Gregoria Atilano (1st Mrs. Atilano) and her uncle Sultan Khibad Sahriyal — Sahriyal called Gregoria “mayora y gobernadora de Zamboanga” because her husband Manuel was Sgt. Major, commander of Fort Pilar and interim governor of Zamboanga. He signed himself “Quibad Mujamad.”
Sharif Raja Bungsu married Nayac
Bungsu of Jolo married Nayac, Subana, daughter of Timuay Saragan of Pulong Bato. Sultan Julkarnain (cousin of Gregoria Atilano de Alvarez) was the grandson of Sultan Amiril Mamini Camsa.
Six governor-generals took personal military campaign against the Moros
1) Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera against sultans Kudarat of Ilihan and Rajah Bungsu of Jolo: the former in 1637 from January to February, and for four months from December 1637 to April 1638; 2) Narciso de Claveria who wiped out “the nest of the fiercest pirates of the South,” in Balangingi; 3) Urbiztondo and 4) Malcampo, conquerors of Tongkil and Jolo; 5) Weyler, conqueror of Lanao; and 6) Terrero, conqueror of Mindanao.
Source: Roots: Lim, Hilario

Fil-American War

Alvarez’s answer to Spanish interrogation
Spaniards became suspect of Alvarez’s Katipunan membership. His reply to query re membership was that indeed he was, and that he had already served his father, so he had also to serve his mother.
Source: Interv. of Ramon Alvarez, son of Gen. Alvarez, p. 1: Frank Enriquez
Early in 1898
= Alvarez came to Zamboanga and organized the revolutionary forces; called meeting of all Zamboangueños in barrio Sta. Maria (s. F. Enriquez)
March, 1898
= outbreak of Filipino revolution in Zamboanga against Spain: (s. Gowing) (s. Arevalo).
= Alvarez together with Isidoro Midel, Calixto, Ramos, etc. spearheaded the revolt in Zamboanga, March (s. F. Enriquez)
August 13 (?), 1898
Manila fell to the Americans.
1898
= After the fall of Manila, August 1898, Spanish government transferred to Iloilo in Panay. Gen. Diego de lost Rios, formerly governor of Mindanao, assumed charge as Spanish military governor and acting captain-general of Philippine islands.
After the fall of Manila, the Filipino revolutionists continued war against Spain by organizing resistance in the Visayas and Mindanao (s. Gowing) {CHECK: verify fact}
Dec. 10, 1898
= Treaty of Paris.
Dec. 24, 1898
= De los Rios fled to Iloilo from Manila; arriving there on Dec. 24; driven away by the Filipino rebels, he came to Zamboanga. (s. Navarro)+
Alvarez organizes revolutionary forces
Early 1898 [?], Alvarez came to Zamboanga and organized the revolutionary forces.
Called meeting in Sta. Maria of all Zamboangueños to unite against Spain.
Initial opposition until Alvarez told them of the cruelties he saw while working in Malacañang.
Source: Interview with R. Alvarez, in Labuan, Zamboanga city: Francisco Enriquez
###
Alvarez spearheads natives’ revolt
March 1898, Alvarez, together with Isidoro Midel, Calixto, Ramos, etc., spearheaded Zamboanga’s revolt against Spain.
Source: Enriquez, F.
###
Voluntarios revolted
In 1899, the Voluntarios revolted against Spanish authorities and burned portion of Zamboanga town.
Weeks of fighting continued; Spaniards “virtually besieged by Voluntarios who were by that time reinforced by well-armed irregular troops of Filipino insurgents.”
Spanish obliged to burn most of the remainder of the town to have clear field of fire.
Source: Mandate …, p. 24: Gowing
Rios escapes Manila through Iloilo
p. 5 = De los Rios escaped capture by fleeing from Manila to Iloilo, where he arrived on December 24 [1898]; but was driven away by the Filipino insurgents. He came to Zamboanga, since the fort of Isabela [de Basilan] was a Spanish naval base. All the “remnant” boats were there.
Source: Interv. Navarro
Rios’s asked for Iloilo’s surrender to Americans refused
p. 22 = Before the Treaty was to be signed, Gen. Rios knowing he couldn’t stand attack by Filipino forces asked to turn over city of Iloilo to the American authorities, so his remaining troops could retire to Zamboanga.
He was refused; and was permitted to evacuate Iloilo on Dec. 24.
Source: Mandate … : Gowing
Rios awaits repatriation to Spain
Except for Jolo garrison and small post besieged at Baler on eastern coast of Luzon, Gen. Rios assembled the remnant Spanish forces in Zamboanga in December to await repatriation to Spain.
Source: Mandate … p. 22: Gowing
###
Dec. 1898
= Gen. Rios assembled the remnant Spanish forces, except for Jolo garrison and small post besieged at Baler on eastern coast of Luzon, in Zamboanga to wait for repatriation to Spain.
= Spanish troops concentrated in Zamboanga for repatriation; for these Spanish troops came the Transatlantic ships, Leon XIII, Puerto Rico, and Monte Video. (s. Navarro)
January, 1899
= Provinces of Misamis, Cotabato, and Surigao liberated by the Filipino rebels.
= Spanish fled to Zamboanga.
January 8, 1899
= Formation of two companies for public order: Deportados (from San Ramon prison colony, mainly political prisoners, some veterans of the revolution, under Juan Ramos, a paroled murderer [amnestied revolutionario]); and Voluntarios (under Melanio Calixto, ex-sailor of the Spanish navy). (s. Gowing)
= Organized by Gen. Adolfo Gonzales Montero. (s. Navarro; s. Pettit)
= These companies were armed by the Spaniards in May. (s. Navarro)
= Same month Gen. Rios ordered evacuation of Cotabato. (ibid)
Spanish garrisons fled to Zamboanga
p. 240-241 = January 1899 (Jan. 9), provinces of Misamis, Cotabato, and Surigao were liberated by Filipino patriots.
“The Spanish garrisons in these provinces fled to Zamboanga, where generals Rios and Montero and their troops were quartered.”
“Upon orders from Madrid, Gen. Rios sailed for Manila to supervise the repatriation of the Spanish forces to Spain. General Montero, former governor of Cebu, took over command of Zamboanga. On May 13, during the absence of General Diego de los Rios, the revolutionists under command of General Alvarez attacked Zamboanga, but they were repulsed after a bloody fight, in which General Montero was mortally wounded and later died.”
Harassed in Jolo, the Spanish garrison there under General Huertas, evacuated to Zamboanga.
Gen. Alvarez continued harassment of Zamboanga forced Gen. de los Rios to surrender Zamboanga city to Filipino patriots on May 18, 1899.
Next day Spanish forces and Spanish families left the city. Gen. Alvarez ruled the city which he liberated from Spain until the coming of the American troops six months later.
Source: P. I. Revolution: Zaide
###
Concentration of Spanish forces in Zamboanga
p. 12 = Spanish troops concentrated in Zamboanga. For them came the Transatlantic ships Leon XIII, Puerto Rico, and Monte Video.
Source: Interv. Navarro
Spanish troops concentrated in Zamboanga
p. 2 = Spanish troops concentrated in Zamboanga to be taken to the Peninsula; thus, ships Leon XIII, etc. were in Zamboanga.
source: Saavedra
Appoints military commander Gonzales for Mindanao
p.446 = January, 1899, Aguinaldo appointed Simeon Gonzales military commander of Mindanao.
Authority and power to raise troops.
Source: The Philippine Insurrection … :Taylor
Pres. Aguinaldo seeks allegiance with Jolo sultan
On January 18, 1899, Aguinaldo wrote Sultan pledging he would respect beliefs, traditions of each island in order to establish bonds of fraternal unity.
Looking sort of alliance to fight common enemy.
Source: Mandate …p.26: Gowing
Allegiance with Jolo Sultan
p.446 = Aguinaldo on Jan. 19, 1899, wrote Sultan of Jolo that the Philippine Republic respected the beliefs and traditions of every island in order “to thus bind them more firmly together by the bonds of their common interest.”
Source: The Philippine Insurrection: Taylor
Formation of deportados and voluntarios
Same month (Jan. 1899) that Gen. Rios ordered evacuation of Cotabato, Gen. Montero, commander of military department headquarters of Zamboanga, “began to prepare for the eventual evacuation of this town.”
Authorized formation of two companies of native volunteers to maintain public order after Spanish troops left: the Deportados from San Ramon prison colony [mainly political prisoners, some veterans of the revolution) under Juan Ramos, a paroled murderer; and the Voluntarios under Melanio Calixto, ex-sailor of Spanish navy.
Source: Mandate … p. 23: Gowing
Montero arms two voluntary companies to protect town
p. 8 = (During interview, Navarro asked interviewer A. Enriquez to read Pettit’s annual report, of Sept. 16, 1901, p. 553) — Spanish Gen. Adolfo Gonzales Montero armed two companies of voluntarios in January, 1899, as “he said to protect the people after the troops were withdrawn.” One was commanded by Melanio Calixto, a greaser from a Spanish gunboat; the other company “composed of deportados from the colonio San Ramon was placed in command of one named Juan Ramos, a convict serving life sentence for murder but who was on parole under charge of Col. Olaris.”
These companies were armed by the Spaniards in May.
Source: Interv. Navarro, p. 8
Arming two Filipino companies
p. 553 = “To protect the people after Spanish troops were withdrawn,” Spanish Gen. Gonzales Montero began arming two companies of “voluntarios” in January 1899. One company was commanded by Melanio Calixto, a greaser from a Spanish gunboat.
Other company compose of “deportados” from San Ramon under Juan Ramos, a convict serving a life sentence for murder, was paroled under the charge of Col. Olaris.
Spaniards armed the two companies.
Source: A.R. 1902-vol. ix
###
Outbreak of the revolution
1899
= Voluntarios revolted against Spanish authorities; burnt part of Zamboanga; weeks of fighting continued; Spaniards “virtually besieged” since by this time they were joined by Filipino insurgents.
Spaniards obliged to burn most of the remainder of the town. (s. Gowing)
= Outbreak of the revolution in Zamboanga was in March, 1898. Vicente Alvarez was among the first to “lead call to arm against Spain.”
Together with patriots Melanio Calixto, Ramos, Isidoro Midel, etc. , Alvarez engaged against the Spanish forces.
Elected as leader of the Zamboanga revolutionary forces; officially appointed as head of the revolutionary government of Zamboanga and Basilan by Malolos Congress on May 4, 1899, with the rank of brigadier general.
Source: Mindanao Life, p 8: Vicente Arevalo
###
Moluan
Muluan could be reached through Tictuan channel which is near Masinloc anchorage.
Source: Interv. Navarro
###
Heroes and their place of birth
Nestorio Arquiza – town proper
Midel – Tetuan
Calixto – Isabela, Basilan island
Source: ibid
March 12, 1899
= Moros attacked Filipinos in Polloc, Cotabato province; defenders repulsed the attack. (s. Taylor)
= While 50,000 American troops were engaged in quelling the revolution in Luzon and the Visayas, in Spring (March) of 1899, the Spanish garrisons in the south were attacked by either Filipino insurgents or Moros; some were wiped out. Little garrison at Tataan in Tawi-Tawi was slaughtered to a man by Sulu Moros; the posts at Bongao and Siasi were so severely harassed they were later abandoned.
March 13, 1899
= Gen. Otis received reports that Moros were acquiring large supplies of arms and ammunition from Singapore. (s. Gowing)
March 14, 1899
= Spanish authorities advertised for the public sale of the naval station of Isabela, Basilan island, 13 of their gunboats. Purchased by a private syndicate, with the understanding it would deliver them to the U.S. authorities in the harbor of Manila. (s. Taylor)
Spanish garrisons suffered attacks from Filipino insurgents and Moros
While 50,000 American troops engaged in quelling the Filipino insurrection in Luzon and the Visayas in spring (March) of 1899, the Spanish garrisons in the south were attacked and some were wiped out by either Filipino insurgents or Moros.
A little garrison at Tataan in Tawi-Tawi slaughtered to a man by Sulu Moros. Posts at Bongao and Siasi severely harassed they were abandoned.
Source: Mandate …, p. 22: Peter Gowing
###
Filipinos threatened by Moros
In March 1899, Moros attacked the Filipinos in Polloc, Cotabato Province, but defenders repulsed the natives.
Source: Philippine Insurrection …, p. 447: Taylor
###
Moros acquiring arms through Singapore
In March or thereabouts of 1899, Gen. Otis received reports that the Moros were acquiring large supplies of arms and ammunition.
Source: Ibid, p. 22
###
Trade in arms
p 449 = Spanish acting governor-general (Gen. Rios) admitted to Gen. Otis that he had not succeeded in stopping there (Mindanao) the trade in arms, and as for commerce “it could never be placed under proper restrictions.”
Source: The Philippine Insurrection: Taylor
First Week of April, 1899
= Alvarez comes down from Mercedes headquarters and place guns in Tetuan.
April 7, 1899
= Filipino patriots under Gen. Alvarez captured 13 Spanish gunboats (remnants of Admiral Montojo’s fleet) which were anchored near Basilan strait. They took the armaments, etc. and used this against the Spanish garrison in Zamboanga. (s. Zaide)
= April 7, 1899: guns, cannons, etc. transported to Las Mercedes, insurgents’ headquarters, occupying the church convent and public school rooms. The 13 gunboats arrived Zamboanga from Isabela de Basilan on Apr. 7.
Nestorio Arquiza, Melanio Calixto, etc. took the gunboats to Masinloc, including the merchant ship Butuan. After the 13 ships were disarmed, they were taken to the Bay of Zamboanga in the afternoon of the same day. (s. Saavedra)
= The thirteen gunboats were to be surrendered to the Americans, since the Treaty of Paris (Dec. 10, 1898) was already signed. Spaniards didn’t suspect the Fil. rebels, even received them on board. Gunboats were taken to Masinloc; there was aport there in Mulumuluan in Mercedes. (s. Navarro)
= Gen. Alvarez the only revolutionary general to capture 13 gunboats on the night of April 7; remnants of Adm. Montojo’s fleet destroyed partially during the battle of Manila Bay. These gunboats eluded Commodore Dewey. Gunboats’ cannons to bombard Fort Pilar in the event of an American invasion. (s. Arevalo)
A few Days After Apr. 7, 1899
= American cruiser Petroll arrived Zamboanga and took all the 13 gunboats to Manila. (s. Saavedra)
Middle of April
= U.S. starts blockade of Zamboanga, using Mandi’s island Manalipa as base: two warships, CSS Castine under Commander Very and USS Manila under Commander Nazro. Ship Castine was a real man-of-war in design, although a gunboat with less displacement than Manila’s.
First came the Castine, then Manila which was made of iron.
= US Pietrol took the 13 Spanish gunboats and one merchant boat to Manila.
= Middle of April, 1899, according to Gen. Otis, the Spanish authorities requested U.S. to relieve the troops of Spain in Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago.
Relief was requested because the sultan and his datus, it was asserted, were securing large supplies of arms and ammo from the Asiatic and neighboring coasts.
All Spanish troops formerly situated along the coast of the island of Mindanao were concentrated at Zamboanga, Spain’s chief city there. (s. Taylor)
Capture of 13 gunboats
p. 449 – 450 = In March, 1899, Spanish authorities advertised for public sale at the naval station of Isabela, Basilan Island, thirteen of their gunboats. These were purchased by a private syndicate, with the understanding it would deliver them to the U.S. authorities in the harbor of Manila.
The Americans promised to pay him at cost price the armaments of the vessels if he could also secure these. Thus, he sailed for Isabela with some of the merchant vessels, taking a crew.
Taking the gunboats with him, he waited near Zamboanga for the U.S. war vessel which was delayed at a northern port (and which arrived less than 24-hours after 13 gunboats were seized).
Mindanao insurgents then seized the thirteen gunboats, “and nearly one-half of [the syndicate’s agent’s] ordinance, consisting of artillery rifles, and ammunition for same was taken from him and landed about a mile from Zamboanga on he Mindanao coast. By this seizure the insurgents were supplied with a few pieces of artillery and quick-firing guns, 375 rifles, with considerable ammunition for all guns and pieces, and could therefore place themselves in fair condition for attack or defense.”
Agent complained to the c.o. of the Spanish troops in Zamboanga, who, upon being assured the arms wouldn’t be used against him, didn’t “concern himself further in the matter.”
The gunboats and what remained of the armaments were convoyed to Manila by naval authorities.
Source: Taylor (?)
Capture of 13 gunboats
On the night of April 7, 1899, Alvarez, along with Calixto, Nestorio Arquiza, and 100 natives on outriggers, under cover of darkness, captured the Spanish gunboats, which, evading encounter with the U.S. fleet, dropped anchor near Molumoluan and Basilan Straight. Filipino crew helped them.
Source: Arevalo
13 Gunboats captured
p. 307 = “… on April 7, 1899 the Mindanao patriots under Gen. Vicente Alvarez’s command attacked and captured 13 Spanish gunboats (remnants of Admiral Montojo’s fleet) which were anchored near Basilan strait. They plundered the gunboats’ armaments and used them in their campaign against the Spanish garrison in Zamboanga.”
Source: P.I. revolution …: Zaide
###
Spanish authorities request to relieve their troops
p 449 = Middle of April 1899, according to Gen. Otis, the Spanish authorities requested the U.S. to relieve the troops of Spain in Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago.
All Spanish troops formerly stationed along the coast of the island of Mindanao were concentrated at Zamboanga, its chief city.
Relief was requested because the Sultan and his datus, it was asserted, were securing large supplies of arms and ammo from the Asiatic neighboring coasts.
Source: Taylor
###
Spanish governor general requests U.S. to relieve troops
Rios requests American U.S. forces and vessel for aid in withdrawal of Spanish forces — May 1899
Upon receipt of instructions from Madrid to withdraw, Gen. Rios requested Gen. Otis to send U.S. troops to the South and war vessel to cruise the Sulu sea to give “aid to the Spanish forces in case they were placed in extremity by either Moros or insurgents.”
Source: Mandate: Gowing
Spanish request for troop relief denied
Spanish forces in Sulu couldn’t be immediately relieved by Gen. E. S. Otis, U.S. military governor of the Philippines that spring of 1899.
With fighting in Luzon, he didn’t want to tie up his troops in the South.
Source: p 22: Gowing
Early May, 1899
= Not getting any response from Americans to help him relieve Spanish forces from Zamboanga, Gen. Rios cabled Madrid for instructions early in May, 1899. In response, Madrid directed him to withdraw at once from Zamboanga and Jolo and to proceed to Spain. (s. Gowing)
May 4, 1899
= Malolos Congress elected Vicente Alvarez head of the Zamboanga revolutionary forces and the government of Basilan and Zamboanga, with the ran of briggadier general.
May, 1899
= Alvarez ordered Col. Victorio Olariz, chief of staff of the Spanish forces, to surrender the “plaza and all the Spanish forces therein.” Olariz refused and fight began.
Only after Gen. Montero was wounded did the Spaniard surrender in the ensuing battle. (s. Arevalo)
Malolos congress appoints Alvarez as brig. general
May 4, 1 899, Malolos congress officially appointed Alvarez to the rank of brig. general and head of the revolutionary forces in Zamboanga.
Source: Interv. Ramon Alvarez, p 2: Enriquez, F.
Order surrender of Plaza refused
Alvarez ordered Col. Victorio Olariz, chef of staff of the Spanish forces, to surrender “plaza and all the Spanish forces therein.”
Olariz refused; resulted in “relentless uprising against Spanish forces.
Complete surrender to Filipino forces “only after Gen. Monteiro [six] got wounded in the ensuring battle …”
Source: Mindanao Life p. 8: Arevalo
May 10, 1899
= To take advantage of the captured Spanish armaments and before Spaniards surrender to Americans peacefully, the Fil. rebels decided to take Zamboanga, that is, the fort, at 10 in the evening. High caliber guns placed in trenches of Tetuan. (s. Saavedra)
= Ramos attacks town, burns part of it. Spaniards built trenches burn part of town to give clear field of defense. Fighting continued desultory until the ship Leon XIII arrived to take away the Spanish garrison. Ramos was chief of artillery, “which consisted of seven machineguns taken from the Spanish gunboats.” Zamboanga burnt except two streets along the waterfront. (s. Navarro interview, with Pettit’s report as source)
= Gen. Alvarez attacks Spanish forces but unable to take the town. He had come down from Las Mercedes, placed the cannons and heavy guns in the trenches of Tetuan. Wounded seriously was Gen. Montero; also wounded were the commander of the engineers Señor Gimeno, and the captain of the apunteria Señor Villa. (s. Navarro)
May, 1899
= Ramos attacked Zamboanga, burnt part of it; then Spaniards built trenches and burnt part of the town also to give clear field of defense. Fighting continued in desultory way until Leon XIII arrived to take away Spanish garrison.
Gen. Montero was wounded on the wharf while embarking and died of his wounds in Manila. (s. Pettit)
= Fighting stopped at dawn when Spaniards raised white flag on May 11, 1899, or the following day.
(Add: Filipino commission formed to confer with Gen. Rios on board Transatlantic Puerto Rico. Negotion failed. Hostilities renewed that night.
-Sr.Gimeno, commander of engineering force; Catp. Sr. Brilla of infantry.)
Col. Olvis held hostage in Tetuan until the return of the Filipino commission. (s. Saavedra)
May 11-12, 1899
= Encounters between Gen. Alvarez and Gen. Adolfo Gonzales Montero, field commander of Gen. Diego de los Rios, last Spanish governor-general of the Philippines. (s. Navarro)
May 12, 1899
= While flag shown by Spaniards from the trenches, and a peace parley was called; after it failed the battle was resumed “to get Zamboanga before it is given to the Americans.” (s. Navarro)
May 12, 1899
= White flag shown by Spaniards from the trenches, and a peace parley was called; after it failed the battle was resumed “to get Zamboanga before it is given to the Americans.” (s. Navarro)
= In the evening of May 12, hostilities started again, but the Filipinos failed to take Zamboanga. (s. Saavedra)
May 13, 1899
= Gen. Otis received dispatch from Iloilo that insurgents had attacked Spanish garrison in Zamboanga, “using the rifles and quick-firing guns taken from the 13 Spanish gunboats. Some Spaniards were killed; water cut off.
Gen. Rios wired Madrid and was told to withdraw Zamboanga and Jolo garrisons. Rios informed Gen. Otis of this and asked that troops be sent to relief them; Otis replied he didn’t have enough forces, and to let the garrison “pass into the hands of the insurgents from whom we would be able to take it later.” (s. Taylor)
May 13, 1899
= In the absence of Gen. Riois, revolutionists attacked agian with “rifles and quick firing guns’ taken from the 13 cpatured Spanish gunboats.
Water cut off.
= Gen. Montero, former governor of Cebu, was sriously wounded.
= Harrassed in Jolo, the Spanish garrison under Gen. Huertas evacuated to Zamboanga.
(Note: Verify if it is possible for Gov. Rios to leave for Manila and be back to Zamboanga within five days? Since he was in Manila to arrange the repatriation of Spanish forces to Spain, there he would have to stay a few more days before his departure, which would at the least at two more days to his assumed five-day trip back to Zamboanga.)
May 15, 1899
= “… Wednesday, May 15, 1899 … the insurgents’ flag snapped in the sea breeze on the ramparts of Fort Pilar, the citadel of Zamboanga.”
Datu Mandi busy interviewing “Presidente” Miedle (sic) at Tetuan hinterland.
Miedel’s (sic) messengers rallied Americanistas (adherents to the cause of U.S. or opponents of the insurrectionary faction), while insurgents’ flag raised on the ramparts of Fort Pilar. (s. Potter)
May 15, 1899
= About 7 a.m., Wednesday, two US gunboats lay anchor half-mile from beach of Zamboanga harbor. Revolutionists not disturbed, probably assuming additional vessel menat “at most, only somewhat more effective blockade.”
May 18, 1899
=Gen. Rios surrendered Zamboanga and asked for conference with the Fil. patriots on board Leon XIII. Members of the Fil. commission invited yet for dinner by Rios.
That same afternoon Rios and the Spanish forces left Zamboanga on board Leon XIII for Manila, thence to Spain.(s. Navarro interview)
= Gen. Rios surrendered Zamboanga to the revolutionists. Conference held on board the Leon XIII.
Rios tendered a great banquet to the Filipino commission while Spanish forces embarked without interruption. In the afternoon, Spaniards left for Manila and thence for home: Spain. (s. Saavedra)
= Spanish flag lowered at Fort Pilar and when the Spaniards left the coasts of Zamboanga, a gun salute was given by the Filipinos. This was the last point of the archipelago which the Spaniards evacuated. (s. Navarro inter.)
= Spanish flag lowered from Fort Pilar.
Several gun salutes were fired to signify farewell to the Spaniards, May 18, 1899.
From May 18 the revolutionary forces took possession of Zamboanga under Gen. Alvarez; Nestorio Arquiza appointed governor of Zamboanga. (s. Saavedra)
May 18, 1899
= Revolutionists take over Zamboanga.
Montero didn’t surrender 8,000 Remington rifles because under international law through Treaty of Paris hte guns should be surrendered to the U.S.
Spaniards left same day for Manila, thenn for Spain. (s. Navarro interv.)
May, 1899
= Montero said he couldn’t surrender the 8,000 Remington rifles to the Filipinos, because international law through the Treaty of Paris should be surrendered to the U.S.A.
Alvarez didn’t fight Rios but Montero, who was wounded while boarding the ship and died of wounds at sea on his way to Manila; he was buried in Paco cemetery.
However, another source (Free Press?) said Gen. Montero fell wounded in the trenches and later died on board Leon XIII. (s. Navarro inter.)
= In May, 1899, upon receipt of instructions from Madrid to withdraw, Gen. Rios requested Gen. Otis to send U.S. troops to the South and war vessels to cruise the Sulu sea to give “aid to the Spanish forces in case they were placed in extremity by either Moros or insurgents.”
Spanish forces in Sulu couldn’t be immediately relieved by Gen. E. S. Otis, U. S. military governor of the Philippines, that spring of 1899. With fighting in Luzon, he didn’t want to tie up his troops in the South. (s. Gowing)
= In May, Americans commenced blockade of Zamboanga through the U.S. Castine, then joined later by U.S. Manila, using the island of Manalipa, ancestral home of the Mandi family. (s. Navarro Notes)
= Half a year Zamboanga blockaded from the sea by U.S. Castine. It was effective in diminishing food resources of the sub-province [Zamboanga] and secured allegiance form Visayan inhabitants—Christians—of the hinterlands, and from tribe of Samal Lauts—Mohammedans.
May 19, 1899
= Next day, May 19, 1899, after Spanish surrender, the Spanish forces and their families left Zamboanga.
Gen. Alvarez ruled the city which he liberated from Spain until the coming of the American troops six months later, Nov. 1899. (s. Zaide)
= During the period from May 19 to Nov. 16, 1899, Gen. Alvarez had full control of the Fort Pilar and the old town of Zamboanga.
However, the Filipinos were on the alert over the eminent invasion of Zamboanga by the Americans by surprise. (s. Navarro notes)
= After the departure of the Spaniards, women invited to bailes.
Goy Bautista and Lorenzo murdered by Alvarez’s order; both innocent of crimes.
Tribute levied upon Chinamen. Barrios and company paid $M 5,000 Mexican dollars to save their property.
This state of affairs existed until Nov. 1899 when Isidoro Midel, former captain of Tetuan, murdered Melanio Calixto.
Zamboanga burnt except 2 streets along the waterfront.
Zamboanga church was sacked, and Luis Lim, a mestizo, paraded int he street in priest’s robes.
People were robbed of carabaos, rice, poultry; women were invited to bailes and kept for days.
Gay (sic) Bautista and Lorenzo were murdered through Alvarez’s orders: two ere perfectly innocent. (s. Pettit)
= “As in Cotabato, the withdrawal of the Spaniards left anarchy reigning in Zamboanga.” The organization of the Voluntarios disintegrated; the church sacked; people were robbed,” women were invited to bailes [dances] and kept for days.”
Luis Lim, a mestizo, “paraded in the streets in the priest’s robes.”
After withdrawal of Spaniards, “Republic of Zamboanga” organized “but debauchery and crime were the order of the day.” (s. Gowing)
= Church of Zamboanga sacked; Luis Lim, a mestizo, “paraded in the streets in a priest’s robe.” People robbed of carabaos, rice, poultry, etc. “There was chaos and confusion,” said Navarro, according to Duping It [?]. (s. Navarro inter.)
= After relieving Spanish forces in Jolo on May 19, 1899, Gen. Otis believing “that it would require at least 2,000 troops to take and hold Zamboanga, settled for the occupation of Jolo for the time being.”
On May 19, 1899, after Spain decided to evacuate, Gen. Otis dispatched to Jolo two battalions of the 23rd infantry to relieve the Spanish garrison in Jolo. (s. Gowing)
= May 19, 1899, the 23rd infantry under Capt. E. B. Pratt relieved the Spanish garrison in Jolo, whose commander was about to turn over Jolo to the Sultan of Jolo. No force was needed as Pratt’s diplomacy convinced the Sultan and the datus to “give their adhesion to the United States.” (s. Taylor)
May 19, 1899
= After Spaniards surrendered, the Spanish officers and their families left Zamboanga. (s. Saavedra)
= After relieving Spanish forces in Jolo, Gen. Otis believing that “it would require at least 2,000 troops to take and hold Zamboanga, Otis settled for the occupaiton of Jolo for the time being.”
= Gen. Otis dispatched to Jolo two battalions of the 23rd infantry to relieve Spanish garrison in Jolo, whose Spanish commander was about to turn over Jolo to the Sultan. Capt. E.B. Pratt in command of 23rd. No orce was needed as Pratt’s diplomacy convinced the Sultan and the datus to “give their adhesion to the United States.”
End of May, 1899
= Baldomero Aguinaldo, the President’s cousin, wrote the Sultan of Jolo authorizing him to establish a government in all rancherias of Mindanao and Sulu. No response from the Sultan.
= The Spanish forces were fired on as they left Zamboanga on board Leon XIII, end of May. Gen. Montero was fatally wounded at the wharf as they boarded the vessel.
The U.S. Navy promptly established gunboat blockade of Zamboanga harbor. (s. Gowing)
May 23, 1899
= All Spanish forces in Mindanao massed in the fortress of Zamboanga. (s. Hurley)
Insurgents attack Zamboanga
p. 2 = To take advantage of the captured Spanish armaments and before Spaniards could surrender peacefully to North Americans, revolutionists decided to take Zamboanga.
On May 10, 1899, Gen. Alvarez and his troops and with armaments and artillery came down from Las Mercedes and at 10:00 o’clock in the evening of the same day attacked the Spaniards.
Heavy caliber guns placed in trenches of Tetuan.
Source: Saavedra
Spaniards raised white flag/Filipino commission formed
Fighting stopped at dawn when Spaniards raised white flag on May 11, 1899, or the following day.
Filipino commission formed to confer with Gen. Rios. on board transatlantic Puerto Rico.
Col. Olvis held hostage in Tetuan until return of the commission.
Source: Apuntes … p.3: Saavedra
Ramos attacks town
p. 8 = Ramos attacked town, burnt part of it.
Spaniards built trenches, burnt part of town to give clear field of defense.
Fighting continued desultory until ship Leon XIII arrived “to take away the Spanish garrison.”
p. 9 = Ramos was chief of the artillery “which consisted of seven machine-guns taken from Spanish gunboats.
Zamboanga burnt except for two streets along the waterfront.
Source: Interv. Navarro [using Pettit’s report as source]d
Filipinos attack Zamboanga town
p. 553 = In May Ramos attacked Zamboanga, burnt part of it; then Spaniards built trenches and burnt away part of the town to give clear-field of defense.
Fighting continued in desultory way until Leon XIII arrived to take away Spanish garrison.
Gen. Montero was wounded on the wharf while embarking and died of his wounds in Manila.
Source: A.R. 1902, vol. ix: Pettit
Battle resumed
p. 3 = On May 12, 1899, evening, hostilities started again. But Filipinos failed to take Zamboanga.
Source: Saavedra
Insurgents attack Fort Pilar
p. 450 = May 13, 1899, Gen. Otis received dispatch from Iloilo that insurgents had attacked Spanish garrison in Zamboanga, “using the rifles and quick-firing guns which they obtained from the Spanish gunboats.”
Some Spaniards killed; water cut off.
Gen. Rios telegraphed Madrid and was told to withdraw Zamboanga and Jolo garrisons. He informed Gen. Otis of these instructions and asked that troops be sent to relieve them. Otis replied he didn’t have enough forces and to let the garrison “pass into the hands of the insurgents from whom we would be able to take it later.”
Battle between Filipinos and Spaniards
May 10-12 was the encounter between Gen. Alvarez and Gen. Adolfo Gonzales Montero, field commander of Gen. Diego de los Rios, last Spanish governor general of the Philippines.
De los Rios was on board Transatlantic Alfonso XIII [?].
Source: Interv.: Navarro
Insurgents unable to take Zamboanga/Montero killed
p. 3 = Heavy resistance by Spaniards prevented Filipino insurgents to take Zamboanga.
Spaniards suffered heavy casualties. Gen. Montero fatally wounded by bullet from one of the cannons.
Montero died on board Leon XIII while ship was on her way to Manila.
Also wounded: commander of engineering, etc.
Source: Saavedra
Alvarez orders burning of town/cease-fire called by Spaniards/Spaniards leave Zamboanga
p. 2 = Town burnt to facilitate military operations.
Spaniards though badly mauled refused to surrender arms and ammo and to leave Zamboanga.
Spaniards gave Muslims arms to plunder Zamboanga.
Because of refusal to surrender, fight continued and Gen. Adolfo Montero was killed. Spaniards forced to call for cease-fire. Defeated Spaniards and families allowed to leave Zamboanga on board Spanish ship Leon XII [sic]. Left on May 18, 1899.
Source: Enriquez, F.
Cannons placed in strategic places
p. 1 In preparation to the bombardment of Fort Pilar, in the event of American invasion, the cannons dismantled from the captured ships were placed in strategic places in Tetuan.
Source: F. Enriquez
Filipino rebels attack Spanish forces
p. 12 = Gen. Alvarez came down from his Mercedes headquarters; placed cannons and heavy guns in the trenches of Tetuan; attacked town on May 10th. Rebels unable to take Zamboanga.
Wounded seriously was Gen. Montero. Also wounded were the command of the engineers Senor Gimeno and the capitan de apuntoria Senor Villa.
p. 13 = On May 12, battle was resumed to “get Zamboanga before it is given to the Americans,” after peace parley was unsuccessful (Spaniards showed white flag from trenches).
On May 18, Gen. Rios surrendered Zamboanga and requested conference with the revolutionists on board Leon XIII.
Members of the Filipino commission invited yet for dinner by Rios.
That same afternoon Rios and the Spanish forces left Zamboanga on board Leon XIII for Manila and Spain.
Source: F. Enriquez
Spaniards surrender Zamboanga
Spaniards raise white flag
p. 3 = Fighting stopped at dawn when Spaniards raised white flag on May 11, 1899, on the following day.
Filipino commission formed to confer with Gen. Rios on board Transatlantic Puerto Rico.
Col Olvis held hostage in Tetuan until the return of the Filipino commission.
Source: Apuntes … p 3: Saavedra
Spanish flag lowered
p. 14 = Spanish flag lowered at Fort Pilar and when the Spaniards left the coasts of Zamboanga a gun salute was given by the Filipinos. It was the last point of the archipelago which the Spaniards evacuated.
Source: Interv. Navarro
###
Datu Mandi boards U.S. Manila
On November 14, 1899, an hour or two after dark, Datu Mandi boarded the U.S. Manila anchored at Malanipa.
Source: Potter
Gun salutes as farewell
p. 4 = Spanish flag lowered from Fort Pilar.
When the Spaniards left on the 18th of May, 1899, there were several gun salutes to signify farewell.
Source: Saavedra
###
Spanish forces surrender Zamboanga
p. 4 = On May 18, 1899, Gen. Rios surrendered Zamboanga to the revolutionists.
Conference held with Filipinos on board the Leon XIII.
Rios tendered great banquet to the Filipino commission while Spanish forces embarked without interruption.
In the afternoon, Spaniards left for Manila from where they’d later leave for home: Spain.
Source: Saavedra
###
(continued … )

Advertisements

3 Responses to Notes on Zamboanga: from the founding of la Caldera in 1595 to the cholera of 1916

  1. Scent Tolentino says:

    Hi Sir, your notes would highly help me in the completion of my research, may i ask for your list of “sources” pls?

    • arenriquez says:

      Sorry, Mr. Tolentino, I just opened this site today, haven’t looked at it maybe a year now…Have been writing and finishing two novels and a nonfiction (Subanon Twice-Told Tales/UST-Php350), in the meanwhile, which was released by UST this December, so recent I don’t have my complimentary copy yet. Working now on another larger novel, no fixed title yet (working title, “The Siege of Zamboanga” or this “The Betrayal”). I think I have much of my sources re Zamboanga in the latter novel. When I find it will send you the list of sources thru your email. Better there since I seldom open my website … best, tony

    • arenriquez says:

      Hi, Scent: have posted it here, the biblio; also sent it to your email inbox as attachment.Hope the stuff would be useful. It was (is) to two historical novels I wrote, one recently.

      Buen salud, Tony

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s